# 2. 意识的一阶和二阶模型

意识（consciousness）指有机体的主观经验（subjective experiences）。目前测量意识经验的有效工具是口头自我报告(verbal-self report)。口头报告来源于内省（Introspection）。而内省则是意识的重要特征。

… so-called phenomenal consciousness is just the property of there being something that it is like for one, from one’s point of view, to be in a particular state (81). When I consciously experience pain, or see red, there is something that it is like, and that something can only be known through experience.

# 5. 参考文献：

LeDoux, J. E., & Brown, R. (2017). A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. doi:10.1073/pnas.1619316114